Females with Turner Syndrome have an increased prevalence of autoantibodies and are at increased risk of developing autoimmune diseases compared to the general population. The absence of a normal second X-chromosome further contributes to increased autoimmune diseases in Turner Syndrome. Health care providers should be observant and test liberally for these conditions even before clinical symptoms emerge.
Autoimmune diseases include:
Hashimoto thyroiditis, pernicious anemia, Addison disease, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, autoimmune hepatitis, autoimmune colitis, thrombocytopenia, and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
To read more about autoimmune diseases, scroll to page(s) G35-G36 in the Clinical Guidelines found here.