Skin and nail issues in girls and women with Turner Syndrome could cause some concern. Skin tends to be dry with moles, and prone to skin problems requiring the screening and treatment of a dermatologist. The prevalence of skin conditions are not determined by karyotype.
Common issues in the epidermis include:
- Melanocytic nevi (raised moles) prevalence ranging from 15 to 64%.
- Pilomatricomas (subcutaneous nodule or cyst) prevalence is (2.6%)
- Vitiligo (skin pigmentation variance) prevalence in (2.7–6%)
- Halo nevi are a mole (nevi) that is surrounded by an area of depigmentation that resembles a halo seen in(18%)
- Keloid scarring develops about 3% after surgical procedures.
- Alopecia areata and for cutis verticis gyrata reportedly exist but prevalence not affirmed
- Whorling skin pigmentation patterns, such as hypomelanosis of Ito, may accompany mosaic karyotypes.
Therapy with Growth Hormones (GH) may trigger melanocyte growth, but it has been shown neither to increase the number of nevi nor to trigger malignant transformation. No clear relationship has been found between GH therapy and other skin lesions.
The risk of significant scarring and keloid formation in patients with Turner Syndrome is high. Elective surgery (e.g. for webbed neck or prominent ears) should be employed judiciously. This also applies to simple procedures, such as ear piercing.
Nail dysplasia is found in 70% of all patients primarily due to a lymphatic response. The nails may appear small, narrowed, upturned, or deeply inserted at an angle, and some patients may not have toenails.
To read more about skin, scroll to page(s) G38 in the Clinical Guidelines found here. Outside of skin and nail issues, bone issues are also a common concern for girls and women living with Turner Syndrome.