Some women with TS may naturally conceive, but most do not. Is any particular route to parenthood recommended over others?
Invitrofertilization – IVF? Donor ova? Adoption? Why or why not?
In most cases, pregnancy is not recommended due to the risk to the mother. The increased blood volume incurred in pregnancy heightens the risk of aortic dissection in the mother. This can be fatal, so the risk is great. Successful pregnancies have occurred via IVF with careful follow up with the reproductive specialists. Adoption offers the least risk to the mother.
Are there any circumstances in which pregnancy is contraindicated?
Heart issues, as mentioned above, as well as kidney provide a contraindication for pregnancy.
Anecdotal evidence found on the internet suggests that women with TS can and do get pregnant via a variety of methods. Does maternal risk increase with age?
If heart/aortic problems exist or have become more evident, the risk certainly increases. Weight gain, prior to pregnancy, can also be problematic since many TS ladies have difficulty maintaining a healthy weight. If other factors have been adequately treated, i.e. hypothyroidism, calcium issues, etc., the risks would increase equally to those without TS.
If I already have a child with Turner Syndrome, what is the risk of it occurring again in future pregnancies?
Turner Syndrome occurs randomly, so having a child with TS will not increase in the risk of it occurring again in a future pregnancy. A geneticist may assist you in providing additional information.
What advice is normally given to parents with an in-utero diagnosis?
It is recommended that delivery occur in a hospital with a Newborn Intensive Care unit that can handle potential problems. Education for parents can occur when they are ready, so they can be prepared for what may be necessary for the baby at delivery.
Parents should be reminded that they did nothing wrong to have this chromosomal abnormality occur.