Glucose intolerance occurs more frequently in persons with Turner Syndrome than in the general population; however, diabetes mellitus seems to be rare. Monitoring of fasting blood glucose concentrations should be considered in girls who are significantly overweight, have a strong family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, are Hispanic or African American, or have signs of insulin resistance, such as acanthosis nigricans.
Healthy women with Turner Syndrome are characterized by:
- Impaired glucose tolerance
- Insulin resistance
- Low physical capacity
- Enlarged type IIa muscle fibers, indicating diminished oxygen and substrate supply for metabolic processes
- These findings could be indicative of a pre-diabetes state