Urinary Tract Abnormalities
Approximately one third of patients with Turner syndrome have a structural malformation. Rotational abnormalities and double collecting systems, or abnormal vascular supply are found most frequently. Although many of these abnormalities do not have clinical significance, some may result in an increased risk of hypertension, urinary tract infections, or hydronephrosis. Therefore, all individuals with TS should have a renal ultrasound study performed at the time of diagnosis. If abnormalities are detected, further evaluations should be performed, and the appropriate therapy instituted. Additionally, in such individuals, ultrasound and urine cultures should be performed every 3–5 years.