Autoimmune Diseases

Females with TS have an increased prevalence of autoantibodies and are at increased risk of developing autoimmune diseases compared to the general population.  The absence of a normal second X-chromosome further contributes to increased autoimmunity in TS. Health care providers should be observant and test liberally for these conditions even before clinical symptoms emerge.

Autoimmune diseases include:
Hashimoto thyroiditis, pernicious anemia, Addison disease, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, autoimmune hepatitis, autoimmune colitis, thrombocytopenia, and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

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